When movement happens in brick walls, beyond it can withstand structurally, cracks happen in walls. Cracks happen when the brickwork is overstressed or at places, where it is least restrained -- door and window openings and at corners. The reasons could be the movement of the ground under the foundations, the extra load above, say on lintels, beams, or the moisture content of the walls, fluctuations of temperatures. Some cracks are active, some are passive and some are cyclic.
I-Joists are used in residential and commercial construction in UK as load-bearing and non load-bearing members for floors, walls and roofs. They are strong, lightweight engineered wood structural products manufactured to meet demanding performance standards. The I-beam theory states that the I shaped section is a very efficient form for carrying both bending and shear loads in the vertical plane. The top and bottom flanges resist bending, while the web provide outstanding shear resistance. The flange material is typically laminated veneer lumber or solid sawn lumber, and the web is made with plywood or OSB. The resulting composite timber member has more strength, and resistance to bending than solid wood member. It also saves materials.
Trussed rafters have proved to be the efficient, safe and economical method for supporting roofs. They are usually manufactured by specialised timber engineering companies. To get the most out of them, they should be mounted correctly and stabilized. The needed truss hangers, truss shoes, truss clips, restraining straps, bolts, nail plates, nails etc., can be bought at competitive prices on-line from Joisthangers.
- Wrong size hangers are used (either undersized or oversized),
- The bearing surfaces are not to specifications,
- The amount of hangers are not enough,
- Wrong nailing,
- Wrong type of nails
Floors and decks require lot of joist hangers, so the faster and more accurately you can install them, the more time and money you can save. If there is an easier method to preinstall the hangers on the ledger board, beams and rim joist,so you can simply drop each joist in place without having to struggle to hold it in position while attempting to nail it.
The new fence can enhance your garden’s appearance, shelter plants, provide you privacy and security. It can also be used to hide unsightly features, if there are any. The easiest method of constructing rails for board fencing is to have the rails on the front of the posts then fitting the boarding along the whole length. The Arris rails with a triangular cross-section, and cant rails which are more or less rectangular with the top edge sawn at an angle to allow rainwater to run off away from the fence boards are the most commonly used for fence railing. Traditionally Arris rails had tongues cut at their ends which fitted into slots cut in the posts. The tongues took the full weight of the forces on the fence, so they often broke after a time. You can buy online at Insulation Shop various metal accessories that make the fencing work very easy for everyone.
To build simple deck adjoining your house just above the ground doesn't require posts, steps, but can be built with walplates, joists, beams. Posts and steps would be needed, if the land is sloped fro the house, or you want the deck to be bit higher. It is quite possible to accomplish on your own and you don't have to be a professional carpenter. This project is easy enough to do. It is so extremely rewarding to stand on a deck that you have created with your own two hands. And more importantly, you can save so much money!
Timber connectors improve the transfer of loads by increasing the bearing area between the fasteners and the timber.
General Timber Connector types
- Ring Connectors, Shear Plate Connectors, Toothed Plate Connectors- those that use bolts to draw the members together,
- Metal plate types - those that allow members to remain in the same plane
The timbers, trusses or rafters need securing to the wall plate. This can be done by skew nailing on all form of roof, but on trusses or trussed rafters there is a danger of skew nails disturbing the joint, or themselves being deflected by the plates or connectors, resulting in an ineffective joint. In such situation, framing anchors or truss clips should be used.
Although diagonal ties or sheathing can help control the lateral thrust, angle brackets should be used to fasten perpendicular intersections to prevent lateral movement between members and help provide rigidity to joints. Reinforced angle brackets are suitable for structural applications in framing and also for wood-concrete joints.
Window frames maybe fixed in position by either building in during the main building process or fixed in at a later stage. The actual method used will depend on door/window construction, the material used and the availability of the doors and windows at wall construction stage.
Where floors, joists, rafters and flat roof trusses are built in or supported by hangers off the wall, its required to use lateral restraint by tension straps in accordance with the provisions in BS EN 1996-2:2006 and Building Regulation requirements.
There are two ways to put up a roof;
- The stick framing method - the traditional method, still very popular,
- The roof truss method - the modern method used in the majority of new homes
They use completely different processes and there are pros and cons to each method.
There is a wall tie method that is so simple it takes all of the hard work out of tooth brickwork to tie existing brickwork these days. The wall starters are much easier and quicker to mount, reducing construction time and therefore the cost. The other method is to use stainless steel screw-in ties.
Render and plaster might easily crack under stress and deflation in the process of building construction and in usage. Fibreglass reinforcing mesh and metal mesh laths are used to prevent or decrease such cracking or fraying.
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